Cjis limited access certification test answers

The Protest, The Blackout, and r/BestofRedditorUpdates [NEW UPDATE]

2023.06.08 18:01 amireallyreal The Protest, The Blackout, and r/BestofRedditorUpdates [NEW UPDATE]

Greetings, members of BestofRedditorUpdates!
By now you have probably heard a lot about The Open Letter about API Pricing. Some of your favorite subreddits may have signed up to protest. When we cross-posted the letter, plenty of people were confused about what API even is, how this pricing would impact them, and why it was worth talking about. Since then, there have been a number of posts about this very subject, all explaining better than we could. Subreddits like explainlikeimfive have highlighted in an easy way to understand what API is and why this is change is a problem. AskHistorians have explained in detail why so many Mods are upset and, frankly, disillusioned, in the wake of the Admin announcement.

To a lot of people, the API changes are not a big deal.

If you use the Official Apps and have no issue navigating it, that’s great. You may not have known that third party apps existed, or why people prefer them. If you’re wondering why people can’t just use the official app, we can acknowledge that for many users it is simply a personal preference. They’re used to it (some of us have been using them for years before there was ever an Official App) or they might simply prefer it because of the designs and features. If you’re interested in a visual representation of why so many prefer third party apps, please check this bestof comment out for a side-by-side comparison.
For mods, the mod tool support of these third parties largely makes our jobs much easier, which keeps the communities we all love safer. On a third party app, we can accomplish in two clicks what would take the Official App five. This efficiency means we can address more problems in the community in a more timely manner.
If you’re thinking to yourself, “If these apps are making a profit, Reddit deserves a cut!” we do agree. What we take issue with is that their API is being valued at 10-20x over what other similar services do, to the point where almost every app has released some kind of statement that indicates these changes will kill their apps. I could link to more statements like that, but you get the idea.
Before you ask “why can’t they just run ads to offset those costs”, Reddit has already decided this will not be an option for third party apps. One thing to be aware of as well is that even if a third party app manages to survive July 1st through a subscription based model alone, those apps will not have all the same content as the Official App. Namely, despite paying for the privilege of having a choice, NSFW content will be unavailable and invisible to those users.
If you’re thinking "well, I'm fine, I only use the mobile website via my chosen mobile browser" (chrome, mozilla, etc), you should be aware that Reddit has already been testing functions which eliminate mobile web browsing, and there is no guarantee that your preferred method of using Reddit won’t be next.
Limiting user choice, charging exorbitant and predatory fees, and refusing to communicate, are all significant problems that the BoRU team takes issue with. However, the one we find most egregious is what this change will do to members of Reddit’s blind community.

How are blind Redditors impacted by this decision?

In short, Reddit’s Official Apps leave a lot to be desired at best, and are barely functional at worst. The app on iOS has incorrectly labeled controls, doesn’t always work with swipe, and not all functions can be accessed. For blind moderators, it can be difficult to impossible to find the moderation functions necessary to moderate, and customizing layouts to better suit their needs or make the app easier to navigate is similarly difficult to impossible. Third party apps have addressed many of these types of issues because Reddit won’t, giving these underserved communities a voice that Reddit seems to have no problem taking away.
You might ask yourself how blind users navigated Reddit before there were apps, and the answer is that it didn’t always used to be this way, but it has certainly always had accessibility issues. In fact, discussions about accessibility have been going on for months, if not years. Just a few months ago, Reddit received a free consultation to make their mobile layout more accessible. Reddit did not follow up privately or publicly until the protest’s momentum started to build. Even after numerous, far more recent interactions with the Admin, there seems to be little progress or commitment concerning these issues. This type of interaction is exactly why we the BoRU mod team feel that Reddit is not making accessibility a priority.
Subreddits like blind are vital for the visually impaired in various stages of blindness, providing not just a source of communal support, but insights, strategies, and resources to navigate their new and changing lives. In the wake of Reddit's changes, subreddits like blind will be forced to go dark, leaving an already overlooked group without the invaluable support they both need and deserve.
These changes will also significantly impact volunteer run support subreddits such as transcribersofreddit and descriptionplease, which serve to allow visually impaired Redditors to read text images, and receive descriptions of visual content such as videos and images. These volunteers are indispensable to the blind community, because Reddit is the only social media website with no support for alternative text. As visually impaired Redditors are forced to use an app that is not designed with accessibility in mind, these communities will shrink, wither, and may cease to exist. (See this video for more details on this subject).
For many of us, third party apps are a choice or a preference, but they are an absolute necessity for the visually impaired. The BoRU team is of the opinion that pricing these apps out of existence before their own app is WCAG compliant is nothing short of passive discrimination.
The mod team of BoRU, and many others, feel that July 1st is an unrealistic timeline to make all the changes necessary to make their App accessible. At this point, the only reasonable course of action is for Reddit to publish a public list of key results that they are committed to addressing, and guarantee that third party functionality will be left unchanged until they do.
Here at BoRU we take steps to try and ensure our content is accessible. We ask our contributors to provide image descriptions and to transcribe text images. Sometimes transcribing those text images can take significant time, especially when those images are numerous multi-image text exchanges. Our OPs have never complained when we make that request, even though it is not an official requirement. We find it inexcusable that Reddit cannot do the bare minimum to ensure their visually impaired users have a voice and community.
Frankly, disabled individuals are often expected to pay a premium for the same basic things everyone else uses and enjoys for free. Visually impaired Redditors deserve equal access, and even if third party apps survive, they will not receive it. Those users will not have access to all of the content and features that the rest of Reddit will. Remember, NSFW content will be unavailable to regular users on third party apps, and yes, disabled people like porn too!

So what does all this mean for BestofRedditorUpdates?

Some of our Mod team do use third party apps, both for casual browsing and for moderation. Others don’t. For us, this is not just about our personal preferences; it is about standing in opposition to ableism and making sure others have a voice.
We have had many comments and modmails asking about the position of BoRU’s modteam. We wanted to discuss these matters internally ourselves first, to make sure we were on the same page before we made any sort of announcement. Now that we have: The mod team of BestofRedditorUpdates is in agreement that we should join the blackout on June 12th.
We are prepared to remain blacked out for a minimum of 48 hours. This means that no one will be able to access any BoRU content until the blackout is over. In standing up for the voices of others, however, we don’t want to strip away the voices of our community. So now we want to hear from you. If you support us in this decision, please share and upvote this post, and comment with your support.
How long will BoRU’s blackout last? Pending further developments, after 48 hours we will reassess the situation, taking into account what new statements have been released, how the protest is evolving, and what our users want.
submitted by amireallyreal to BestofRedditorUpdates [link] [comments]

2023.06.08 17:52 TheEternalVortex r/SpidermanPS4 will be going dark from June 12-14 in protest against Reddit’s API changes which will kill 3rd party apps & tools.

Hi, everyone.

As I am sure you have read by the title, SpidermanPS4 will be going dark from June 12th to June 14th.

But why is this happening?

This action is currently happening across hundreds of subreddits (continued here) in response to a recent Reddit API announcement on May 31, 2023 (that is taking effect on July 1st 2023), where Reddit announced they were raising the price to make calls to their API from being free to a level that will kill almost every third party app and tool on Reddit. In simple terms, these limits restrict how much 3rd party applications can access Reddit before they are forced to pay, the amount they pay being based on how much they use Reddit.
Countless users have expressed concern about the changes here because this means the developers of 3rd party applications that go over the limit have to pay fees to keep their 3rd party application running on Reddit, despite their applications often enhancing the user experience by providing accessibility features Reddit’s official site and app do not have, providing quality of life features Reddit’s official site and app do not have, bringing moderating features from Reddit’s desktop version to mobile devices that Reddit mobile users do not have and even adding bots that help moderate some of the top subreddits on Reddit by filtering spam, NSFW content, scams etc.
And by refusing to pay within the next 30 days (by July 1st) or not reaching the amount Reddit is demanding, will mean their 3rd party application will be unable to access Reddit and will be shut down. This would cause every subreddit to rely on Reddit’s in-built AutoModerator that does not provide enough functionality to ensure the level of moderation numerous subreddits currently have and users will only have the official site and app to use, excluding those who need accessibility features Reddit does not offer.

Why is this an issue?

This is an issue because Reddit is quite dependent on 3rd party applications and the amount some of these applications will have to pay is impossible to achieve. Popular 3rd party applications you may know are bots such as u/SaveVideo, u/QualityVote and u/AuddBot or applications such as Apollo, Reddit Is Fun, Narwhal and BaconReader which will all be forced to pay if this change goes underway.
To put this into perspective, Christian Selig (the developer of the Apollo mobile app for Reddit we mentioned above) posted in the Apollo subreddit that he would have to shut down his app’s development due to the prices Reddit was asking him to pay. These prices were $20 million annually just to keep Apollo running and that is without accounting for Apollo’s possible growth. He added that Reddit told him the price would be reasonable and that Reddit would not operate like Twitter.
However, Reddit staff have responded to Selig saying that Apollo was "less efficient than its peers and at times has been excessive – probably because it has been free to be so,", then adding that, "[Reddit’s] pricing is $0.24 per 1000 API calls, which equates to <$1.00 per user monthly for a reasonably operated app." This pricing is 10-20x than Imgur has for its 3rd party applications that Selig also pays “$166” for. Selig says Reddit hasn't made it clear how Apollo is less efficient than other apps, and that in his testing Apollo has made a similar volume of API calls as the official app.
And Selig isn’t the only other developer affected by this pricing. The developer of Narwhal said: "Narwhal will be dead in 30 days because it would cost me 1-2 million a year which I obviously do not have." The developer of Reddit is Fun, additionally expressed a similar sentiment, adding that Reddit was planning to ban sexually explicit content from third-party apps while allowing such content in the official one. BaconReader also commented on the matter, saying that they have no plans as of yet, but thanking their users for their support.
Overall, I hope you can see and understand why this is taking place and even if you do not engage with 3rd party applications, we hope you notice how many other users this will affect and how many subreddits and users depend on these tools to keep their communities on-topic and spam-free or for accessibility features Reddit’s official site and app do not include.

So what happens during that time?

During the designated times, we will have AutoModerator filter all posts with an AutoMod comment on their submissions redirecting people to this post. These posts will then be approved/removed once the strike is over, however, we hope that users will act alongside us in avoiding Reddit for the 48 hours instead.


Thank you for reading. We hope you are now aware of the situation and are willing to stand alongside us and countless other subreddits. If you have any more concerns, please feel free to contact us or ask them below and for more information on this strike, please visit here.
submitted by TheEternalVortex to SpidermanPS4 [link] [comments]

2023.06.08 17:48 GrimUrsine 5800x vs 5800x3D better for SAM?

Hi there! So, I'm pretty intrigued by this question, and I just can't find definitive answers or tests for it.
When it comes down to the 5800x versus the 5800x3D, does all that extra cache benefit Smart Access Memory in any way?
I'm mostly interested in gaming performance, but I also do CAD and 3D sculpting in my free time, and I'm throwing that sort of load in my PC quite regularly.
I'm planning to upgrade my CPU and pair it with an RX 6800XT, and I was incurably curious if that 3D cache goodness brings some extra "free" performance to the table.
Any answers/inputs would be much appreciated.
submitted by GrimUrsine to Amd [link] [comments]

2023.06.08 17:47 Slight-Blueberry-895 Stormworks wishlist

  1. Logic system overhaul/improvements. Current system is tedious and a pain to do, even for relatively small builds. Even just having the ability to filter out logic points that are already connected would greatly improve the system across the board, ideally an advanced filter system would be added, such as creating groups, filtering parts, etc. The need to not only use but also create microcontrollers for instrument panels feels excessive and unnecessary. Simplifying panels, or giving the option of a simplified instrument panel that does not need to use a microcontroller, would go far in decreasing the games barrier to entry.
  2. Built in GPS maps. The fact that this game does not have a built in GPS map, like those tom tom gps map things you see on older cars is absurd when career mode’s map doesn’t show where you are on the map. And before anyone says that it’s “realistic”, if fishing boats in the Bering Sea can have a GPS map during rough weather, I see no reason why a SAR vehicle wouldn’t have such basic equipment. The current career mode’s starter boat is kinda useless at the starting base for this reason, there aren’t many landmarks out in the ocean, and I shouldn’t have to use the workshop just to make the base boat functional.
  3. Radio console. A simple premade radio console with knobs and such would also be nice and simplify a decent amount of logic.
  4. Custom window, wedge, and pyramid dimensions and/or more of these blocks in general, and make them more customizable (ie changing the windows color to green or putting designs on wedges and pyramids)
  5. Small boats keep water out, don’t need a closed volume to be buoyant
  6. Sails
  7. 18th century weaponry
  8. Life rafts
  9. Emergency inflatable slides (for planes)
  10. Gliding
  11. Oars
  12. Premade vehicles for every basic need you have in game. There should be basic, cheap, premade cars/trucks, boats, etc that can fulfill most of everything you would need to do in game. Nothing particularly fancy, just simple builds that can easily supplanted by custom creations that can serve as references for your own builds or be stopgap measures until you build replacements.
  13. Search and Recovery. Unfortunately, not every SAR operation is successful. Missions about recovering remains would be nice and can add a decent bit of variety. For example, maybe a hiker found a body in a hard to reach place in the mountains, and because of that an offroad vehicle or aircraft is needed to get there, diving on a wreck to recover remains, or recovering a car from a lake. Other missions could also be diving for investigation critical components, such as black boxes or voyage data recorders, or even specific components that investigators want to find.
  14. More in depth rescue/injury mechanics. Stuff like sprained ankles, injuries, pregnancy status, health conditions, etc, requiring different things to heal/stabilize. This would also add a sense of urgency to each SAR mission, as now you can’t solve/delay everything by throwing a first aid kit at it. Maybe the local hospital doesn’t have the facilities to treat a time sensitive, so you have to transport the patient to a bigger hospital. Dealing with things like hyperthermia would also be nice.
  15. Boat materials (wood/metal/polymer)
  16. Amenities and furniture in general.
  17. Logging industry
  18. Fishing industry
  19. Debris
  20. Other SAR teams/companies to have a presence in the world and are able to be called upon if needed.
  21. Nuclear reactor disaster
  22. More variety and depth for SAR missions, such as an aircraft ditching in the harbor, an aircraft going missing and having to search for it, recovering lifeboats, a nuclear powered ship sinking and having to deal with the radiation, chemical tankers releasing toxic chemicals into the water, sinking an adrift vessel, stopping an illegal salvage operation etc. A cool idea would be to add in the possibility for major accidents to happen, such as a cruise ship capsizing, a nuclear powered ship sinking, or a military aircraft armed with a nuclear warhead being lost over the ocean. Another cool idea would be to add interviews with accident investigation teams after some accidents, such as when a ship sinks because of poor maintenance about what you saw. Obviously, the interviews should only occur for more major accidents and when the player could actually have relevant information. There could also be complications for missions, such as the ship still moving and unable to be stopped, the whole crew is incapacitated, etc.
  23. In the same vein as no 22, an overhaul of Search And Destroy as it pertains to the overworld would also be nice. Instead of simply having an AI that fights the player, how about having 2 major factions that fight each other, the local military and an invading military, with the option of creating your own faction to take over the islands. This would differ from the previous system by making it so that you would complete orders issued to you, such as patrolling a specific area, engaging a fleet, mining or demining a waterway, etc. At first, you start out doing gruntwork, but as you move up in rank the more you can do, such as sending grunts to do the gruntwork for you. You could also give the option for the player to make their own faction Another thing that could be added are pirates and pirate gameplay. SAD could also add in new missions and disasters, such as disarming mines from the second world war, serial killers, hijacking attempts, a fire at a munitions dump, etc. You can have a lot of fun in regards to disasters and special missions too, such as cleaning up a munitions dumping ground (like what the Norwegian military did, dumping thousands of tons of munitions into a river) or a sunken supply ship detonating (like that one off the coast of England) and dealing with the after effects of that.
  24. Hiring AI to do things for you, such as a doctor to administer medical assistance to survivors, a captain to drive a boat, SAR divers to recover people from the sea for you, etc.
  25. Passenger playstyle. Ferrying passengers around feels like a logical next step in the game, with factors such as reliability, how fast you can get to destinations, feats (ie having the fastest passenger ferry in the world even if it does not operate at that speed regularly or having the biggest ferry, etc), price per ticket, amenities(free or paid movie theatre, comfy seats, concession stands, is the interior a comfortable temperature, is there a barbershop and if so is it any good, etc) and necessities (do you have enough seats, is there a bathroom, do you have enough life preservers, if it’s overnight, do you have any beds etc). Options to run excursions with famous or historic ships, simple cruises/excursions to places around the islands would be nice too.
  26. Expansion of delivery and miner playstyles. Expansion of these playstyles, such as hiring AI to do parts of the job, either as employees or contracting out another company to, say, transport coal from your mine to the powerplant would go a long way to fleshing out these playstyles. You can even have the option to do smuggling runs of illegal or illicit goods. Smaller deliveries that can be handled with a van, or doing mail runs would be cool as well as oversized delivery missions. Increasing the variety of cargo to transport, such as transporting locomotives and/or cars for export would be cool.
  27. Terminal loading cranes.
  28. A R&D mode which would allow for quick and easy analysis of a creation where you get raw numbers on a ship’s current tilt, balance, engine performance, etc with the ability to easily change the weather and conditions of the environment and easily switch to build mode.
  29. Shipwrights. The idea here would be to overhaul building mechanics as it relates to career mode. Instead of being able to instantly build everything, how you can modify your vessel is limited to what your facilities can do. To get a brand-new ship, you would have to commission it from a shipwright. Before commission, you would have access to R&D mode to fully test out the vessal. Where the fun part really begins is that you can have an entire playstyle built around receiving commissions for ships by the AI (or even other players) for a desired vessel within x specifications at a cost of x amount for x amount of vessels within x timeframe with a bedroom made out of 50% windows at a height of x feet, or even upgrade/modify preexisting vessels as part of a commission or to flip on the market, buying older vessels of varying states and giving them a new lease on life. How many ships you can produce at a given time would depend on your facilities, which can be upgraded. Of course, there would be aircraft and land vehicle equivalents. You can even see the ships you produced doing their job in the world.
  30. Salvaging. Another playstyle that I feel would be a next step for Stormworks would be salvaging vessels either for scrap, refurbish them for resale, restoration into a museum piece, or simply to clear a waterway. You could even give the option to illegally salvage shipwrecks.
  31. Survey missions
  32. Survival suits
  33. Crabbing
  34. Flooding disaster
  35. Hurricane and super storm disasters
  36. Air conditioning
  37. Other ships coming to assist vessels in distress.
  38. Tropical islands
  39. Blimps, zepplins, and hot air balloons.
  40. Naming vehicles
  41. Rogue waves
  42. Supernatural phenomenon. My idea for this is that you would have two categories of phenomenon, explicable and inexplicable. Explicable phenomena would be phenomena that have scientific explanations for them, things such as ghost lights with scientific explanations behind them, maybe have some missions where you disprove the supernatural. Having everything be explicable, however, can be underwhelming so actual supernatural phenomena, such as fleshgaits (especially with SAR being the core theme of Stormworks), ghost ships, or alien encounters, especially if mechanics, such as SAR, are incorporated in it. Like, imagine a seemingly normal SAR mission turning out to be the rescue of aliens from a crashed spaceship and you have to transport them to a drop off point where the MiB is waiting, or a mission where you first set out to debunk the supernatural to then be assailed by the flying dutchman.
  43. More doors, buttons, ladders, stairs and hatches (ie: a traditional house door, car doors, glass hatches, etc)
  44. Panels that can be used as signs or “hatches” for otherwise external equipment (ie in order to access a fire extinguisher you have to open a hatch first, im sure there is a better word for it but I can’t think of it)
  45. Moonpools
  46. Pools
  47. More buildable/modifiable properties, especially for terminals. Could be expanded with the ability to flip properties.
  48. Races
  49. Competing manufacturers of equipment and engines that have varying strengths and weaknesses that improve as time goes. This would also make the game more accessible by giving new players the ability to easily access better engines while also rewarding those who learn how modular engines work by allowing them to jump ahead of the AI. Perhaps a system where you can lease or even produce your own engine designs could be implemented to further reward and encourage using modular engines.
  50. If the game becomes comprehensive enough, the ability to change which era you play in (1700s, 1800s, 1940s, etc) would be a really cool addition by adding in technological challenges of older eras. Additionally, there could be supernatural phenomena that isekai vehicles to and from different time periods, which could add in a whole variety of interesting missions and challenges.
  51. Built-in couplers for trains
  52. Wind having an effect on the player (exiting an aircraft and standing on its wing should result in you being yeeted off the aircraft)
  53. Pressurization
  54. Ingame tutorials like what From The Depths has
  55. A better openworld, NPCs, and RP experiences. The world of Stormworks feels very much dead, which is a shame because that is it’s biggest selling point for me over other building games like simple planes. It gives a reason for all the vehicles being built beyond simply being cool, you can actually DO things with it. I would recommend solving this by:
  56. Create actual population centers. Not huge cities, but small towns dotted across the islands with actual businesses and populations would go a long way to improving the game world, maybe have one or two cities on the island itself so we can do stuff with skyscrapers.
  57. Global traffic of personal, commercial, and government boats, aircrafts and land vehicles would go a long way to making the world feel less empty. Having npcs use a dedicated radio channel for chatter, and which you can interact with them through would be great. This traffic responds to ingame events, for example increased outgoing road traffic when a disaster is about to hit
  58. More realistic roads
  59. Navigation signs, buoys, etc
  60. NPCs operating gas stations, bridges, and industries in general.
  61. Relating to one, make NPCs not only interactable beyond being glorified money bags, but also interact with their environment. Such as trying to move away from fires, calling for help when they see a vehicle, moving towards a stopped SAR vehicle and climbing aboard, getting inside a vehicle of their own volition or swimming to shore when they are literally meters away instead of staying in the water and/or burning boat. Having NPCs interact with the player as well would also be great, such as thanking you for saving their lives, buying the player a beer as thanks if they meet in a bar, etc would be nice. Ideally, there would be a number of persistent npcs who have names, personalities and backstories. Such as Joe, an old sea captain who’s vessel is painted pink in memory of his 6 year old daughter who disappeared, and, if he thinks his vessel is about to sink, will desire to go down with the ship and be resistant to his personal rescue.
  62. Consequences for your actions visible in game. For example, if a casualty becomes a fatality, there is a funeral service held at the graveyard.
  63. NPCs having varying fluencies in English
  64. Missions with storylines attached to them, such as an archaeologist searching for Atlantis, or a group of sailors looking to raise the cargo ship they worked on after it sunk.
  65. Radio music channels
  66. TV channels, can also have a gameplay effect through amenities
  67. Newspaper with an obituary, some fluff news stories, generic articles, state of the economy, ships launched, details regarding the SAR missions you did or didn’t do, in game events, etc.
  68. Unmarked missions, for example lets say Captain Joe’s ship sinks, but Joe survives. Joe is depressed, but if you go out of your way to salvage and repair Joe’s ship and give it back to him he will be happy.
  69. NPC backstories being more then just a text in a box, perhaps a mission leads to you finding Captain Joe’s daughter, alive or dead leading to either a heart warming reunion or somber closure.
  70. News interviews
  71. Points of interest, such as abandoned buildings, natural wonders, historical locations, museums, heritage railroads, businesses etc with lore surrounding them and special missions for that location. For example, lets say there is a hot air balloon tour operation. There would be a few special missions pertaining to hot air balloons in that location. Or for the heritage railroad, their engineer called in sick so they need someone to fill in for the day.
  72. Flavor for missions, for example maybe a family of four reported in the burning boat and watch you put out the fires
  73. NPCs react like real people in the sense of physiological reactions, such as grieving, becoming frozen in shock, mental breakdowns etc.
  74. All disasters have effects (when applicable) in the overworld, such as destroyed homes, ships transported inland, etc. Having missions pertaining to the aftermath, such as removing large debris from roads and tracks to recovering missing persons.
  75. Visual deterioration of abandoned/sunk/crashed vehicles
  76. NPCs may try to take advantage of disasters, such as by robbing people on a sinking ship, looting buildings after a disaster, etc
  77. NPCs may panic and act irrationally when in a disaster, such as taking life jackets away from women and children, releasing lifeboats/liferafts early, etc
  78. Skills and attributes, such as consoling, leadership, physical fitness, bartering, etc
That’s my wishlist for now. I know it’s a lot, and some of it may seem to be a bit much, but I don’t think any single thing is out of the realm of reasonable possibility. The biggest appeal of Stormworks, at least to me, over competitors such as Simpleplanes is that there is a purpose behind what you build. I think that if Stormworks were to expand on RPG elements it would not only greatly elevate the game as is, but also expand the audience while enhancing the core experience.
submitted by Slight-Blueberry-895 to Stormworks [link] [comments]

2023.06.08 17:45 777husky Do Valuations Matter?

If you only have a few minutes, here are some key considerations on valuations:
Valuations matter (of course). Venture is driven by a power law where a very small number of companies return most of the profits, but if the fund relies on the extremely rare $10B+ exits just to return the fund, you might be relying far too much on luck.
An attractive company isn’t necessarily an attractive investment. Know the difference. To achieve venture returns, you will likely have to pass on great companies because the valuation is too high.
But, get into the right companies. Without large exits, you’re unlikely to achieve venture returns. The spread between valuations for “cheap” and “expensive” companies is often much smaller than return multiples from outliers.
Have a clear strategy for valuation. And, stick to it. Routinely overpaying undermines your strategy. It’s OK to make exceptions but be thoughtful and well-reasoned in the decision.

What drives valuations?

Valuations carry information. They tell a story about the company, demand from investors, and often a reflection of the overall market.
Here’s a good breakdown from Semil Shah on what drives valuations:
“A valuation during a funding round for these types of companies are driven by: Investors’ willingness to pay (the most important driver!). Competition among investors hungry to get into a deal. Demand for companies of similar quality, scope, scale, (and) market. A host of other items like team, technology, etc.”

Mahdi @ Exponent on what drives valuations

Exponent is an early-stage fund investing in founders tackling Payments, Infrastructure, Security, App Software.
When setting valuation, some fund managers triangulate several drivers of valuations:
Mahdi also discusses the difference between the attractiveness of a company and the attractiveness of an investment. Not all great companies make great investments.
More from Mahdi:
“On valuations for pre-PMF companies, we triangulate it: Exit opportunity (more intrinsic valuation-ish): We think of it as ‘if everything goes really right (the pre-parade), what could the company reasonably exit at?’. This is meaningfully based off the market opportunity (we are clear to describe it for "known, existing markets" vs. "new, fast growth markets"), competition, etc. That implies a certain amount of revenue, gross margin, and an exit multiple on it. Backing out from there - what should the entry be to achieve a 100x or more outcome for the fund? Next-twelve months (NTM) Comps: Where do we see entry valuations trending next twelve months and is this in line with that? Fund level guardrails: We generally don't believe pre-PMF should be above $15M post (some sectors more, some less). We want the fund average/median to be at or below this; we are open to exceptions, but they have to be crystal clear as to why they are the exception.We increase valuation commensurate with "de-risking" of clear milestones with team, PMF/ velocity/traction, market and exit opportunity. There's also a clear difference for us between the attractiveness of a company vs. the attractiveness of an investment (company + valuation + risk) and the above is focused on the valuation side for pre-PMF teams. We value post-PMF teams more precisely. At the end of the day - the core long-term drivers for all valuations are: Growth of free cash flow (and the drivers for it) Risk of free cash flow. The above helps us to think clearly about both aspects. If this company is humming with $1-1.5M of revenue or another highly implicative traction milestone, where would the Series A be priced at? We typically want the seed vs. Series A delta to be 2.5-3x. Early-stage investors should be compensated for the risk they’re taking and being first advocates.” — Mahdi Raza (Exponent)

Are valuations efficient?

Investors are either price-setters or price-takers for every investment they make. Most commonly, lead investors “set” valuation in negotiation with the founders and follow-on investors invest at that valuation, although this isn’t always the case.
You can’t typically set valuations unless you’re putting in ~50% of the round or more, are the first check-in, or investing off-cycle (i.e. not a part of a formal round). If you’re not setting the valuation, you need to have a point of view on “Is the company worth what the market is saying they’re worth?” This leads us to the question “Is early-stage venture capital efficient?”
While perspectives differ, Abe Othman from AngelList’s Quant Fund has a unique vantage point on this topic:
“One of the most stunning things I've found about early-stage venture capital is that the market is relatively efficient. Put another way, founders convert positive signals about themselves and their companies into higher valuations that capture most (but not all) of the boon from those signals. Venture "alpha", if it exists at all, will really only be in overlooked places: That's why we found that the best schools to invest in are UW, Waterloo, and Brown, not Harvard, MIT, and Stanford. I would say, then, that within like a 2-3x band all valuations are probably "the same" – they don't in fact matter since you're probably paying for an informative signal. Beyond that, valuations are only worth it if the exit could be that much higher, and similarly, companies playing in a smaller space can be equally deserving of investment at lower valuations.” — Abe Othman (AngelList)

Do valuations matter?

Venture managers are responsible for driving venture returns. This is ultimately a function of the investor’s check size, entry valuation, and potentially follow-on investments to maintain or increase ownership. All things being equal, higher valuations cut fund returns. A fund with great companies but very minimal ownership may yield average returns or worse.
Here’s more from the Spearhead blog on how entry prices impact venture fund returns:
“Valuations for pre-traction companies between 2005-2010 were $1-5M pre-money for the first non-friends-and-family round. Funds that invested during this time period made 4x-100x returns. These valuations moved to $4-6M pre-money after 2010, with some demo days in the $8-10M range. This likely cut returns by 2/3 or more. You can’t build a portfolio of pre-traction investments at $8-10M pre-money and expect to make a venture return. On occasion, you can make an exception, but you can’t do all of your investments at this price. You will have to pass on great teams because the valuation is too high. You will have to pass on future iconic technology companies because the price is too high. But passing on a future iconic company at a $40M pre-money gives you the capital to take 10 shots on goal with unknown companies at $4M pre-money.”

Anamitra @ Afore on why valuations matter

Afore invests $500K or $3M checks into pre-everything founders, managing $300M in AUM across three funds.
Venture capital returns are driven by outliers, but it’s impossible to predict the exit value of an investment. Anamitra at Afore talks about the importance of focusing on what you can control: The entry valuation and why it matters.
More from Anamitra:
“If you are an early-stage investor in a company that exits at a $1B or $10B, then you can argue that it doesn't matter whether your entry price was $10M or $50M because you'd do very well. It's obviously better if you could invest at $10M but you'd still 20X if you invested at $50M. This means that if you have high conviction in the outcome, you should not be deterred by small deltas in the entry price. However, most investors don't know how big the outcome could be at the time of initial investment. I'd argue that it might be impossible to know. So, the outcome is unpredictable. However, the investor does have some control over the entry ownership. That's predictable. And since realized returns is a function of outcome size multiplied by exit ownership, the goal should be to maximize entry ownership. You can get high ownership by targeting a low entry valuation, increasing the investment check size, or both. So entry valuation does matter greatly. But it's a balance, because at the end of the day, high ownership in $0 outcome is still $0.” — Anamitra Banerji (Afore)

Julian @ Julian Capital on why valuations matter

Julian Capital is an early-stage fund investing in frontier teach, marketplaces, and B2B SaaS.
“A low valuation won’t get me to invest in a deal, but a high valuation absolutely can get me to walk from a deal.” — Julian Shapiro (Julian Capital)

Approaches to valuations

We collected approaches from fund managers on how they approach valuations. Our goal here was to collect perspectives from a diverse set of funds across fund size and investment focus.

How Rick Yang @ NEA approaches valuations

NEA are investing out of an >$3B VC fund across stages.
The traditional VC model, popular among funds with a concentrated strategy, is optimized around ownership targets. This approach prioritizes ownership, over valuation, although they’re related as funds are finite in size. Rick Yang talks about NEA’s ownership-driven approach to investing.
Note: See more in the “Have a target ownership” section of this post on portfolio construction.
More from Rick:
“I am a believer that fund size and the associated business model driven by that is a big factor in how to think about valuations and deal structures for new prospective company investments. We care more about ownership than valuation for new investments in some sense, although those two things are coupled very closely together. Especially when you normalize historical averages for liquidity and public market valuations, ownership matters a lot when we are considering a new investment. The other part of the ownership equation other than valuation is dollars invested. That becomes a discussion around portfolio construction and the risk/reward with a specific company and space. And of course competition for the round sometimes dictates ultimate valuation, and it's also often why we end up sitting out rounds even if we do really like the team and company. Not the simplest answer, but we like to be thoughtful about structuring initial investments since each NEA Partner isn’t making many new investments per year.” — Rick Yang (NEA)

How Hunter Walk @ Homebrew approaches valuations

Homebrew is an evergreen fund investing primarily in pre-seed, seed and Series A rounds.
Like NEA, Homebrew takes an ownership-driven approach to investing. They view valuation as an important guardrail in evaluating an investment opportunity. Hunter also breaks down their framework for evaluating an investment opportunity when achieving their target ownership exceeds their maximum check size, and the “opportunity cost” of doing so resulting in less diversification.
More from Hunter:
“In our historically concentrated approach to seed stage investing, hitting our ownership target mattered more than valuation but valuation was an incredibly important guardrail in evaluating an opportunity, for it has great impact on the company and our portfolio management overall. We set a ‘max check size’ for our initial investments which was meant to get us, on average, 10-15% ownership and if held to, would overall guide us to an investment period that provided both time and company diversification for the fund. It also drove our reserves strategy. So in any negotiation, whether we wrote our ‘max check’ to get the target ownership was a factor of round size, company stage, and so forth. But we would rarely walk away from an opportunity based on valuation if it fits within that target ownership and check-size box. In situations where targeting the 10-15% ownership would have required a commitment larger than our ‘max check size’ we had to decide whether (a) the opportunity here was worth 1.5 or 2 slots - ie are we going to make one fewer investment out of the fund in order to do this one or (b) would we stick with our check size but take lower ownership as a result or (c) walk away. Of these three, (c) was the most common decision for a variety of reasons that were about being consistent in our strategy and product offering.” — Hunter Walk (Homebrew)

How Nikhil @ Footwork approaches valuations

Footwork is a $175M fund leading rounds at the early stage focused on Seed and Series A.
Another strategy among venture managers is back-solving the valuation from the exit value needed for an investment to return the fund, accounting for maximum check size. Nikhil at Footwork talks about their framework for using this approach. For investors who aren’t setting valuations, the same method can be used to check if the valuation fits with your fund model.
Another important consideration for investors is if the valuation sets the company up for a successful round in the future. The higher the valuation for this round, the higher the valuation hurdle it needs to clear for the next round.
More from Nikhil:
“Valuations do matter to us, to a degree. We have to believe that the valuation makes sense relative to the stage of the business and that the valuation sets the company up for future fundraising success (i.e. the valuation isn't so high that it won't be cleared at the next round). The other calculus that informs our thinking on valuation is how our check size and ownership can lead to a return-the-fund investment for us. What do we have to believe for this single investment to return the fund? Our first fund is $175M, so if we're investing $5M to own 20% of a company, assume that we'll be diluted down to 12% over time, the company has to get to $1.5B or more of exit value for that investment to return the fund. We use this framework and work backwards to the valuation (in the example's case, $25M post-money), check size ($5M), and ownership (20%), that we believe could achieve that goal.” My general principle is that valuation is right when it's mutually disagreeable; that is, both company and venture firm feel a bit uncomfortable about where it lands.” — Nikhil Basu Trivedi (Footwork)

Jonathan Hsu @ Tribe Capital approaches valuations

Tribe capital invests in companies in $1M-$20M of annualized revenue raising at valuations between $30-300M with round sizes in the $5M-50M range.
Venture managers want to ensure that the following round is as low risk as possible. Valuation is one part of that – the higher the entry valuation, the higher the valuation hurdle the company needs to clear for the next round to register a markup. This is an important consideration in the valuation strategy many fund managers take.
More from Jonathan:
“At a high level, I think about valuation in terms of what-needs-to-happen-next round. For example, say you are at X revenue/scale and raising $Y (because you're burning $Z). Then, presumably, if you raise it, once you spend it, you will be at some new scale and will need to raise some new larger amount because of your presumably higher burn. We want to make sure that the following round is as low risk as possible and the current valuation is a part of that equation. More specifically, if you raise at a low valuation now and you exceed your expectations, it will make it much easier to raise the next round. If you raise at a high valuation now and exceed expectations, you may be at a disadvantage in fundraising because the prior round set a precedent that will be hard to match. In some sense, fundraising for startups is like a frog jumping between lily pads until they get big enough that capital sources become more continuous. We want to have a good feel for the size and distance of the next lily pad and your odds of hitting it. Current valuation is a big piece of determining that.” — Jonathan Hsu (Tribe Capital)

How Eric Bahn @ Hustle Fund approaches valuations

Hustle Fund is investing into pre-seed software startups out of its $46M fund.
The majority of entire fund returns tend to come from single or a few "home run" investments. Venture fund managers like Eric keep that in mind while approaching valuations. Central to their approach to valuations is giving each investment the ability to return the fund. They ask themselves: “Can this investment be a 100x return?”
More from Eric:
“We have a simple approach to how we think about valuations: At the post-money valuation that we can invest in a founder's company, do we think that this team can 100x? As a simple example: say we invest in Vedika's company at a $1M post-money valuation, do we think that this founder, in her given market, can get to a $100M exit outcome (IPO, acquisition, etc)? If the answer is YES, then we are excited to invest! And that is somewhat rare. This simple approach to portfolio math works for small, pre-seed funds like ours (sub $50M AUM for the given fund) because it means that even small checks we write have the chance to return the entire fund. I don't think it works with larger AUM funds, where there requires a lot more financial engineering to get to fund returning opportunities, and the expected multiple tends to be a lot lower the more you subsequently invest into your winners.” — Eric Bahn (Hustle Fund)

Why Terrence Rohan @ Otherwise Fund doesn’t focus on valuations

Otherwise Fund is a small, early-stage fund focused on seed and Series A (they don’t lead rounds).
Power law returns dominate venture. Another perspective among venture managers investing in the earlier stage is getting into the right company is more important than getting in at the right valuation. Of course, there are not always mutually exclusive. When they’re in conflict, fund managers like Terrence Rohan first optimize for securing their investment and then for ownership.
More from Terrence:
“My short answer: I do not focus on valuation. I focus on finding the right companies, and then consider allocation or valuation; given this, I will never pass on valuation (early stage). My longer answer: If you look at early-stage venture capital over the past few decades, the power law of returns (i.e., a handful of companies drive the majority of the returns) may be the data's defining pattern. Given this, my primary heuristic is to get into the right company. If you are in the right companies, even with subpar ownership and high valuations, you will have top returns. Once you secure a place on the cap table, I then try to optimize for allocation – but this is a secondary consideration, and will never gate an investment. This logic holds for early-stage companies, and price becomes more important the later stage you go.” — Terrence Rohan (Otherwise Fund)

How Linda Xie @ Scalar thinks about valuations

Scalar is a ~$50M fund focused on investing in pre-seed and seed stage crypto companies (non-lead).
Linda at Scalar believes that passing on a company based on valuation, as long as it falls within a reasonable range, is a missed opportunity. Of course, this has limits as valuations serve as important fund guardrails. She highlights how too high of a valuation at the current round increases the risk of a company raising its next round.
Here’s Paul Graham on the topic:
“Valuation matters far, far less than the decision of whether to invest or not. The spread between bargain and outrageous startup valuations can't be more than 5x, in a world where the best investments can return 1,000x.”
More from Linda:
“We are typically less sensitive to valuations at these early stages. If we have a strong belief in the team and what they’re building, I feel it’s a missed opportunity to pass as long as the valuation is in a reasonable range since we're ultimately aiming for major hits in the long run. There’s only been a handful of pre-seed and seed stage deals I've wanted to do but passed solely due to valuation. A major consideration if the round is priced too high at pre-seed and seed is making sure it’s not too difficult for the founder to raise future rounds so I will mention this to the founder as a consideration and many have taken that into account.” — Linda Xie (Scalar Capital)

How Ryan Hoover @ Weekend Fund approaches valuations

Weekend Fund is a ~$21M fund investing $200-400K checks in pre-seed/seed rounds (non-lead).
The macro climate is outside of any single fund’s control and an investor’s job is to deploy capital over a reasonable amount of time. Managers can influence valuations but the market will have the largest influence on the portfolio outside of significant strategic changes.
More from Ryan:
“Weekend Fund started in 2017. Our first fund's median entry price was ~$7M post-money. Since then, market valuations have climbed. The equivalent companies are raising at 2-3x higher prices. As an investor, we have to ‘play the ball on the court’ (a phrase I believe I first heard from Sarah Tavel at Benchmark) and recognize that credible founders are looking for a fair or favorable deal, and have options. But that doesn't mean we don't care about the valuation. They matter. We focus on meeting founders early and investing at sub-$10M post-money valuations. Every company we back should have the opportunity to return our fund (or more) if they achieve a $1B+ exit. That said, we aren't overly dogmatic and will flex up to participate in promising opportunities. It’s more important that our overall portfolio aligns with our strategy and model. Occasionally founders will award the fund with advisor shares to get us to our ownership target (and effectively lower our entry price). This only works because we have a relatively small fund size to return and if founders value our partnership.” — Ryan Hoover (Weekend Fund)

Advice for fund managers on valuations

We asked experienced fund managers for advice they have for emerging fund managers on approaching valuation.

Have a clear point of view on valuations (and defend it)

“Now matter the approach, it is important for new managers to have a clear point of view on valuations, and be able to defend it. The safest philosophy (i.e. the most accepted by LPs) is to be valuation sensitive and have a concentrated portfolio.” — Terrence Rohan (Otherwise Fund)

Compare your level of conviction to the price the market is setting

“The ‘valuation question’ is one that comes up frequently in our discussions with the emerging managers we back via Screendoor (where we will invest up to 10% of a fund’s target raise and bring them into a community of investors ongoing for these types of questions). While situations can differ, my general rule is that the market determines the price, so you have to kind of decide whether your conviction in a company is equal to, greater, or less than price the market is telling you they are ‘worth.’” — Hunter Walk (Homebrew)

Be disciplined to ensure you can hit a minimum portfolio size

“It’s a power law business so an EM wants to be able to show the quality of their access, picking, and winning. Having hard and fast ceilings on what you’re willing to pay, or trying to over focus on the upper bound of your ownership target too early in your venture lifecycle might make it tougher to prove selection success. So don’t routinely overpay or outbid, especially when you don’t believe in the company as much as the market does, but potential LPs will be more interested in the number of successful investments you picked than your entry price in them. Just maintain enough discipline to ensure you can hit a minimum portfolio size." — Hunter Walk (Homebrew)

Don’t over-engineer your fund model (at least at the early stage)

“We have institutions, family offices, and high net worths as investors across our three funds. Rarely do we field questions that are onerous about our fund's mathematical model. Given that we raise relatively small fund sizes, and that pre-seed is more about an LP's belief in the talent of the GP – I wouldn't worry too much about over-engineering your portfolio model. You should have a model that you follow, and you need to explain it—but pre-seed is too early a category to model for absolute accuracy, in my opinion. Late-Stage funds however have a much higher expectation of portfolio math by LPs, and I think that is warranted.” — Eric Bahn (Hustle Fund)

Valuation negotiations can reveal a lot

“Besides the math of it all, valuation negotiations can tell you a lot about what matters to the founders, the type of relationship they want to have with their investors, and the goals they need to achieve to complete successful next financing.” — Hunter Walk (Homebrew)
submitted by 777husky to buildindia [link] [comments]

2023.06.08 17:39 otaku_shasha I feel suicidal

I am a (23f) who studies in final year dentistry. I have been struggling with performance anxiety and clinical depression since my first year in dental school. I failed in the 1st year which led to me getting 6 months drop from the original class I joined and later on I had to take another drop because of my father’s health conditions during covid time. And finally I was put in a regular batch where I made friends and was coping okayish. But unfortunately i failed 2 subjects in my final year and was given another drop of 6 months. I failed oral pathology and periodontics. My 3rd year oral pathology HOD has been consistently downright mean to me and even passed negative comments regarding my father’s health issues and my mental health issues. She thinks I’m acting an elaborate play or faking things to gain sympathy. She didn’t sign my journal coz I took a drop from 3rd year finals during my father’s hospitalisation days and later on when I was promoted to 4th year she agreed to sign my journal certificate. Unfortunately whenever I went to her, she kept sending me back or asking me to do corrections required and I did what I was asked to do. I must have gone to her more than a dozen times back and forth. She would call me during times when I was in lecture or in OPD or whenever I went, she wasn’t in her cabin. When I had to go meet her post taking drops to sort things out in 3rd year, She passed insensitive remarks regarding my father’s health condition saying how can a person be sick for such a long time. My father was suffering from acute necrotising pancreatitis which led to 20% necrosis of his pancreas and all the complications related to it along with 12mm kidney stone which caused him immense pain and he was in ICU for a long time as he also has diabetes and high blood pressure. I brought all the relevant documents about my father’s health and asked her to make a note that I wasn’t simple missing her classes because I am not punctual but because I need to be there for my family. She rejected seeing the reports by saying “I don’t want to see all this.” I told her she can have a talk with my mother but she still did not accept that and she again said she doesn’t want to have any talk with my family. She looked at me like I was selling her some sob story and sent me away. But her comments regarding my father’s health and the way she looked at me, led me to attempt suicide because she made me feel like its better for me to disappear than ever show my face to her. I tried hanging myself and my mom found me in the room doing that. My room has a key lock and she had the keys. After that I cried a lot and it took me a long time to recover. I gave my 3rd year finals and passed 2 out of 3 exams. I failed her exams and wasn’t able to answer anything because looking at her in the exam hall triggered those memories of me trying to kill myself and everything she has done or said or how I cried pathetically during my father’s hospitalisation time. So I wasn’t able to deal with all that and failed the exam. In 4th year I sat for the KT she gave me in her subject. The day before my practical exams, I had a major panic attack where I suffered from terrible chest pains and was not able to breath properly and kept shivering. I was taken to the hospital and given IV and medication to calm down. I was in the hospital till the evening and barely had time to study for her practicals. This time I passed the theory exam but I was failed in the practical exams. She threw my answer paper on my face when the external asked me questions and asked me how was my theory paper. I was answering her and she saw the bruises I got from the IV, injections and blood tests they did the night before. And the external asked me about the same and when I told her honestly, the HOD lady lost her shit and threw the paper on my face saying how dare I go around tell others she failed me when I am not worth of passing. She thought I was trying to gain sympathy from the external. She has been mentally harassing me this way since past 1 year and so much that I have PTSD and seeing her triggers me. I also had a massive panic attack during my Periodontics practical exam and fainted. I failed that exam. My father went to have a talk with my dean of the college and asked him about how my exams will be taken. He met my college mentor who asked me to meet her. I met her today and she asked me to sit for the classes and then said how all my peers have becomes intern doctors and I am still in final year 1st term. I came home and cried a lot. I felt its not worth living because I’ve been in a lot of mental pain since my first year of dental school. I have invested my whole teenage and everything to become a dentist and yet I keep getting slapped like this by my fate and made to struggle every single day. I am beyond heartbroken and depressed, if I get failed another time then I don’t know what I will do. The oral pathology HOD is responsible for passing people in practicals and if she fails me again I don’t know what to do. My parents tell me they understand my pain but they don’t. My father and I have regular fights about all this. I am so exhausted that even getting up from bed or closing my eyes feel draining. I have been constantly crying and dreaming about dying. I don’t know how to cope or manage anything and I can’t even put an official complaint against her as I am worried she may take it personally and fail me again. But the things she made me go through deserves her to be reported in the college. Worst part is she is a doctor herself and yet she bullied me like I am some insignificant vermin not worth being taken into any consideration. Someone please help me. I am so lost and in so much pain. My father said he will go and have talk with my HOD. But sadly during fights he shouts at me me and tells me about how going to my college and talking to the teachers and everyone there is him having to beg for me which hurts me a lot.
submitted by otaku_shasha to depression [link] [comments]

2023.06.08 17:25 seochatter Types of Keywords In Google Ads

Are you looking to advertise your business on Google Ads
Well, you're in luck because Google Ads allows you to choose specific keywords that will trigger your ads to appear when people search online.
There are four different ways to use keywords in Google Ads: broad match, phrase match, exact match, and negative match. Each match type has its own unique advantages and disadvantages, depending on how specific you want to be and how many people you want to reach.
So, whether you're looking to cast a wide net or target a specific audience, Google Ads has got you covered. Just choose the match type that's right for you and watch your ads appear in front of potential customers in no time.
Note: There’s a dedicated guide on this topic over at the SEO Chatter blog here: Types of Keywords In Google Ads, but this post includes the most important highlights to help you quickly understand the topic of keyword types in Google Ads.
Broad Match: The Easy Way to Reach More People
Broad match is the simplest way to use keywords in Google Ads. You just type in the words that describe your product or service, and Google will show your ads to people who search for anything related to those words. You don’t need to use any special symbols or punctuation for broad match keywords.
For example, if your keyword is “running shoes”, your ad could show up for people who search for “buy running shoes”, “running shoes for men”, “running shoes for women”, “jogging shoes”, “running gear”, “running apparel”, and so on.
Broad match is great if you want to reach a large audience and let Google do the work for you. It also works well with Smart Bidding, which is a feature that helps you optimize your ads for more conversions automatically. However, broad match can also show your ads to people who are not interested in what you offer, because your ads can appear for a wide range of keywords that may not be relevant to your business.
To make sure your ads are somewhat related to what people are looking for, Google also considers each user’s search history, the content on your landing page, and other keywords in your ad group when deciding which searches to show your ads for.
Phrase Match: The Smart Way to Be More Specific
Phrase match is another way to use keywords in Google Ads that gives you more control than broad match. With phrase match, you can tell Google to show your ads only to people who search for certain phrasings of words that you use in your keywords, or words that have the same meaning as your keywords. You can also include synonyms and plurals of your keywords.
To use phrase match, you need to put quotation marks around your keywords, like this: “iPhone case”. Phrase match helps you show your ads to fewer people than broad match, but more people than an exact match.
For example, if your keyword is “iPhone case”, then your ad could show up for people who search for “best iPhone cases”, “red iPhone case”, “iPhone case with strap”, “iPhone protection case”, “silicone iPhone case”, and so on.
Exact Match: The Precise Way to Target Your Audience
Exact match is the most restrictive way to use keywords in Google Ads. With exact match, you can tell Google to show your ads only to people who search for the exact words that you use in your keywords, or words that have the same meaning or intent as your keywords.
To use exact match, you need to put brackets around your keywords, like this: [men’s hats].
Exact match gives you the most control over who can see your ads; however, it also limits the number of people who can see your ads compared to phrase match and broad match.
For example, if your keyword is “men’s hats”, then your ad could show up for people who search for “guy’s hats”, “hats for men”, “boys hats”, “men’s head coverings”, and so on.
Negative Match: The Clever Way to Avoid Wasting Money
Negative match is a special way to use keywords in Google Ads that lets you exclude your ads from showing up for searches that contain certain words. With negative match keywords, you can fine-tune your ad placements so you don’t spend money on showing your ads to people who are not likely to buy from you.
To use negative match, you need to put a minus sign before the words that you want to exclude from your keywords, like this: -free.
Negative match helps you avoid showing your ads for searches that are similar to your keywords but have a different purpose or product.
For example, if your keyword is “men’s hats”, you might want to use negative match keywords like -free, -crochet, -knitting, -pattern, etc, to avoid showing your ads for searches like “free men’s hats”, “crochet men’s hats”, “knitting men’s hats”, “men’s hat pattern”, etc.
Negative match keywords can help you save money and improve your click-through rate and conversion rate by showing your ads only to people who are interested in what you offer.
Choosing the Best Keyword Match Types for Your Google Ads
Now that you know the four different ways to use keywords in Google Ads, how do you decide which one is best for your campaign?
There is no one-size-fits-all answer to this question. It depends on your goals, your budget, your industry, your competition, and your audience.
However, here are some general tips to help you choose the right keyword match types for your Google Ads:
By choosing the right keyword match types for your Google Ads, you can improve your chances of reaching the right people at the right time with the right message. And that’s how you can grow your business with Google Ads.
Go Deeper In the SEO Chatter Mentorship
Would you like to get some personalized help on implementing the strategies we've discussed here for your own website? The SEO Chatter Mentorship program could be right for you.
Inside you'll get:
Get the full details here: SEO Chatter Mentorship
submitted by seochatter to SEOChatter [link] [comments]

2023.06.08 17:03 Jeff_Chileno Theories (doesn't mean each theory) can be disproved into being no longer theories. If a theory is considered a theory despite that theory being "inaccurate or 100% accurate", it's because that theory hasn't yet been confirmed as being such. Correct?

Both of these answers (1 and 2), that two different people wrote on Quora, are good:
  1. Theories (doesn't mean each theory) can be disproved into being no longer theories. Falsified by evidence, you mean, not disproved. Like Copernicus and others displacing geocentric cosmology, yes. The history of science supplies plenty of other examples. If a theory is considered a theory despite that theory being "inaccurate or 100% accurate", Theories do not cease to be theories at the first sign of trouble. We hang on until we have a replacement that we cannot falsify. Some hang on longer, like Einstein with quantum uncertainty. it's because that theory hasn't yet been confirmed as being such. Correct? No. This turns out not to be the case. Theories cannot be confirmed. Newton did not prove his supposed inverse-square gravitational force was real. He only proved that the equation for such a force predicted Kepler’s conic section orbits. Centuries later the hypothesis of such a force was falsified by both observation and Einstein’s curved spacetime model. Quantum Mechanics (QM) and General Relativity (GR) are our two best theories in physics. Within the current limits of observation, both have stood up to every attempt to falsify them. Much of the time they get along together fine, as in the GPS. But we know that they are not compatible in the cores of black holes and at the beginning of the Big Bang. In both of those cases, GR by itself predicts an unphysical singularity (aka a point mass), and QM says no, nothing can be confined in a region smaller than its wavelength .Thus we are searching for a viable theory of Quantum Gravity, one we can test thoroughly., falsifying all alternatives. We have some interesting but currently untestable conjectures.
  2. Yes, that is correct. In science, a theory is a well-substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world, based on a body of facts that have been repeatedly confirmed through observation and experiment. Theories are not guesses or hunches; they are based on evidence. A theory can be disproved if new evidence is found that contradicts it. For example, the theory of geocentrism, which held that the Earth was the center of the universe, was disproved by the discovery of other planets and stars. If a theory is not disproved, it is considered to be true until new evidence comes along that suggests otherwise. This is why theories are often referred to as "working hypotheses." They are not 100% accurate, but they are the best explanation we have for the natural world based on the evidence we have. Here are some examples of theories that have been disproved:
  3. The theory of geocentrism
  4. The theory of spontaneous generation
  5. The theory of phlogiston Here are some examples of theories that are still considered to be true, even though they are not 100% accurate:
  6. The theory of evolution
  7. The theory of gravity
  8. The theory of relativity Theories are an important part of science. They allow us to explain the natural world and make predictions about how it will behave. Theories are not perfect, but they are the best way we have to understand the world around us.
submitted by Jeff_Chileno to QuestionEverythingNow [link] [comments]

2023.06.08 17:02 Jeff_Chileno Theories (doesn't mean each theory) can be disproved into being no longer theories. If a theory is considered a theory despite that theory being "inaccurate or 100% accurate", it's because that theory hasn't yet been confirmed as being such. Correct?

Both of these answers (1 and 2), that two different people wrote on Quora, are good:
  1. Theories (doesn't mean each theory) can be disproved into being no longer theories. Falsified by evidence, you mean, not disproved. Like Copernicus and others displacing geocentric cosmology, yes. The history of science supplies plenty of other examples. If a theory is considered a theory despite that theory being "inaccurate or 100% accurate", Theories do not cease to be theories at the first sign of trouble. We hang on until we have a replacement that we cannot falsify. Some hang on longer, like Einstein with quantum uncertainty. it's because that theory hasn't yet been confirmed as being such. Correct? No. This turns out not to be the case. Theories cannot be confirmed. Newton did not prove his supposed inverse-square gravitational force was real. He only proved that the equation for such a force predicted Kepler’s conic section orbits. Centuries later the hypothesis of such a force was falsified by both observation and Einstein’s curved spacetime model. Quantum Mechanics (QM) and General Relativity (GR) are our two best theories in physics. Within the current limits of observation, both have stood up to every attempt to falsify them. Much of the time they get along together fine, as in the GPS. But we know that they are not compatible in the cores of black holes and at the beginning of the Big Bang. In both of those cases, GR by itself predicts an unphysical singularity (aka a point mass), and QM says no, nothing can be confined in a region smaller than its wavelength .Thus we are searching for a viable theory of Quantum Gravity, one we can test thoroughly., falsifying all alternatives. We have some interesting but currently untestable conjectures.
  2. Yes, that is correct. In science, a theory is a well-substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world, based on a body of facts that have been repeatedly confirmed through observation and experiment. Theories are not guesses or hunches; they are based on evidence. A theory can be disproved if new evidence is found that contradicts it. For example, the theory of geocentrism, which held that the Earth was the center of the universe, was disproved by the discovery of other planets and stars. If a theory is not disproved, it is considered to be true until new evidence comes along that suggests otherwise. This is why theories are often referred to as "working hypotheses." They are not 100% accurate, but they are the best explanation we have for the natural world based on the evidence we have. Here are some examples of theories that have been disproved:
  3. The theory of geocentrism
  4. The theory of spontaneous generation
  5. The theory of phlogiston Here are some examples of theories that are still considered to be true, even though they are not 100% accurate:
  6. The theory of evolution
  7. The theory of gravity
  8. The theory of relativity Theories are an important part of science. They allow us to explain the natural world and make predictions about how it will behave. Theories are not perfect, but they are the best way we have to understand the world around us.
submitted by Jeff_Chileno to QuestionAnswerCentral [link] [comments]

2023.06.08 17:01 sweetthearrtt1 Embark on Your Programming Journey Today! A Beginner's Guide to Conquer the Tech Era

Hey there, fellow Redditors! 👋 Are you intrigued by the wonders of the digital age and eager to dive into the realm of programming? Well, you've come to the right place! In this post, I'll share some motivating insights to kickstart your programming adventure and guide you on which language to start with in today's ever-evolving era.
Why Start Programming?
First things first, let's talk about why programming is such a fantastic skill to acquire. With technology becoming increasingly intertwined with our daily lives, programming opens up a world of endless possibilities. By learning how to code, you'll be equipped with the power to shape the digital landscape, create your own apps, websites, and software, and even influence various industries.
Embrace the Learning Journey
As with any new skill, learning programming requires patience, dedication, and a willingness to explore. Remember, even the most seasoned programmers were once beginners like you. So, don't let the initial challenges discourage you! Programming is an ever-evolving field, which means there will always be something new to learn and exciting problems to solve.
Choosing the Right Language
Now, the question on every beginner's mind: Which programming language should I start with? While there's no definitive answer, a few languages are particularly beginner-friendly and widely used. Here are three excellent options to consider:
1. Python: Renowned for its simplicity and readability, Python is often recommended as a beginner's first language. It boasts a clear syntax that resembles everyday English, making it easier to grasp the fundamentals. Python finds applications in web development, data analysis, machine learning, and more.
2. JavaScript: If you're interested in web development, JavaScript is your go-to language. It's primarily used for creating interactive and dynamic web pages. Learning JavaScript will give you the power to bring life to your website through animations, user-friendly interfaces, and engaging functionality.
3. Java: Java has stood the test of time and remains one of the most popular programming languages. Its widespread use in Android app development, enterprise systems, and large-scale applications makes it an excellent choice for beginners. Java's object-oriented approach teaches valuable concepts applicable across various programming languages.
Where to Start Learning
Now that you have an idea of which languages to consider, it's time to find reliable resources to begin your learning journey. Here are a few platforms and tools to help you get started:
Stay Curious, Connect, and Conquer!
As you dive into the world of programming, never lose your sense of curiosity. Explore new technologies, experiment with personal projects, and actively engage in programming communities like Reddit, Stack Overflow, and Discord. Building a network of fellow programmers will provide you with support, guidance, and inspiration along your journey.
Remember, the path to mastering programming may be challenging at times, but the rewards are worth it. Embrace the tech era, acquire invaluable skills, and let your creativity and problem-solving abilities flourish!
Best of luck, beginners! Your coding adventure awaits. 🚀💻
*Disclaimer: The choice of programming language may vary depending on personal preferences and intended
submitted by sweetthearrtt1 to PakistanisProgramming [link] [comments]

2023.06.08 16:58 GreenshirtModeler SMTP Relay via postfix not working

I'm attempting to create an SMTP relay. My objective is to have a remote kiosk send an email to my gmail account for key events, such as backups and when a user completes an event. This was working until about 6 months ago using localhost but gmail (and other mail providers) are blocking the emails because they appear too much like phishing.
I've read through some online manuals on SMTP and relays, installed postfix according to this guide, and followed a how-to.
This is my test email from the CLI:
echo "This is a test email" mail -s "sailsheets test email" -a "From: [email protected]" [email protected] 
This is the mail.log file entry (using my dev box to figure this out):
Jun 8 10:51:58 sailsheets-dev postfix/pickup[262287]: DD79C12402CA: uid=1000 [email protected] Jun 8 10:51:58 sailsheets-dev postfix/cleanup[263202]: DD79C12402CA: [email protected] Jun 8 10:51:59 sailsheets-dev postfix/qmgr[121879]: DD79C12402CA: [email protected], size=375, nrcpt=1 (queue active) Jun 8 10:52:00 sailsheets-dev postfix/smtp[263209]: DD79C12402CA: [email protected], relay=in.mailjet.com[]:25, delay=1.7, delays=0.34/0.13/1.1/0.15, dsn=5.7.1, status=bounced (host in.mailjet.com[] said: 554 5.7.1 [email protected]: Relay access denied (in reply to RCPT TO command)) Jun 8 10:52:00 sailsheets-dev postfix/cleanup[263202]: 7E4DB12402CB: [email protected] Jun 8 10:52:00 sailsheets-dev postfix/bounce[263210]: DD79C12402CA: sender non-delivery notification: 7E4DB12402CB Jun 8 10:52:00 sailsheets-dev postfix/qmgr[121879]: 7E4DB12402CB: from=<>, size=2449, nrcpt=1 (queue active) Jun 8 10:52:01 sailsheets-dev postfix/smtp[263209]: 7E4DB12402CB: [email protected], relay=in.mailjet.com[]:25, delay=1.2, delays=0.04/0/1.1/0.15, dsn=5.7.1, status=bounced (host in.mailjet.com[] said: 554 5.7.1 sail[email protected]: Relay access denied (in reply to RCPT TO command)) 
I don't see the relay info, which is telling me that it's not being used or is ignored by my postfix or some other setup. My postfix configuration:
smtpd_banner = $myhostname ESMTP $mail_name (Ubuntu) biff = no append_dot_mydomain = no readme_directory = no compatibility_level = 2 smtp_use_tls = yes smtp_sasl_auth_enable = yes smtp_sasl_password_maps = hash:/etc/postfix/sasl_passwd smtp_sasl_security_options = noanonymous smtp_tls_CAfile = /etc/ssl/certs/ca-certificates.crt smtpd_tls_cert_file=/etc/ssl/certs/ssl-cert-snakeoil.pem smtpd_tls_key_file=/etc/ssl/private/ssl-cert-snakeoil.key smtpd_tls_security_level=may header_size_limit = 4096000 smtp_tls_CApath=/etc/ssl/certs smtp_tls_security_level=may smtp_tls_session_cache_database = btree:${data_directory}/smtp_scache smtpd_relay_restrictions = permit_mynetworks permit_sasl_authenticated defer_unauth_destination myhostname = navypaxsail.com alias_maps = hash:/etc/aliases alias_database = hash:/etc/aliases mydestination = relayhost = in-v3.mailjet.com mynetworks = [::ffff:]/104 [::1]/128 mailbox_size_limit = 0 recipient_delimiter = + inet_interfaces = all inet_protocols = all myorigin = /etc/mailname masquerade_domains = navypaxsail.com mydomain = navypaxsail.com 
Relevant info:
Description: Linux Lite 5.6
Release: 20.04
Kernel 5.4.0-148-generic #165-Ubuntu SMP Tue Apr 18 08:53:12 UTC 2023 x86_64 x86_64 x86_64 GNU/Linux

Edit: formatting
submitted by GreenshirtModeler to linuxquestions [link] [comments]

2023.06.08 16:55 snapsigma Progenifix Reviews – Unlocking the Power of Natural Nutrients for Effective Weight Loss

Are you tired of struggling with excess weight and searching for a solution that actually works? Look no further! Progenifix, an everyday dietary supplement formulated by Tom Goodman, might be the answer you've been seeking. With its unique blend of nine potent mushroom varieties, Progenifix aims to accelerate fat loss and help you achieve your weight loss goals. In this comprehensive review, we'll dive deep into the benefits, ingredients, and potential side effects of Progenifix so that you can make an informed decision.

What is Progenifix and How Does It Work?

Progenifix is a scientifically-proven blend of natural nutrients designed to support weight loss. It's an easy-to-use supplement that requires just a 10-second daily ritual, making it convenient for anyone seeking to shed extra fat mass. The ingredients used in Progenifix have a long history of traditional use and have undergone rigorous scientific testing.
Taking two Progenifix pills stimulates biochemical reactions in your body that will effectively torch stubborn weight. Unlike other weight loss methods that often demand intense workouts or extreme dieting, Progenifix offers a more accessible approach. You can expect significant fat loss without sacrificing energy levels or enduring specific dietary restrictions.
Progenifix is available exclusively on the official website and can be used by both males and females, regardless of their weight or current health status. According to Tom Goodman, the creator of Progenifix, the supplement has already undergone clinical trials, although the official results are yet to be published. However, Tom reports that out of over 1000 participants, an impressive 97% experienced a loss of over 48 lbs. of stubborn fat within three months.

Unlocking the Secrets of Progenifix's Fat Loss Support

Progenifix harnesses the power of a synergistic combination of natural and science-backed nutrients to maximize weight loss. While its primary goal is to help you shed those unwanted pounds, Progenifix also offers several secondary benefits, such as increased energy levels, healthy aging, longevity, and overall well-being.
So how does Progenifix work its magic? Targeting and unblocking key factors inhibiting weight loss provides a comprehensive solution to quickly achieving your fitness goals. Here are the primary mechanisms through which Progenifix supports fat loss:
1. Accelerating Body Metabolism
Excess white fat mass often leads to suboptimal basal metabolic rates, resulting in low energy levels and chronic fatigue, especially for individuals who are overweight. Slow fat oxidation further exacerbates this issue, hampering weight loss efforts. Progenifix contains nine powerful ingredients that release the metabolic brakes, allowing you to shed more weight even at rest.
2. Blocking Fat Storage
One common obstacle in weight loss journeys is storing excess fat after meals. Progenifix addresses this issue by providing nutrients that hinder fat storage, forcing your body to oxidize excess glucose and store fat instead. Additionally, it helps suppress appetite, promoting reduced calorie intake and increased fat metabolism.
Progenifix specifically targets Primal Stress Syndrome, which slows down metabolic rates due to high stress and anxiety levels. By alleviating stress, it becomes easier for your body to release stubborn fat and achieve weight loss goals.
Moreover, certain ingredients found in Progenifix can improve cellular health, leading to increased metabolic rates. The mushroom blend also fortifies your immune system, reduces unhealthy inflammations, and creates an optimal weight-loss environment.

Features and Benefits of Progenifix Dietary Supplement

While Progenifix is primarily advertised as a weight loss supplement, its benefits extend beyond just shedding excess fat. Here are some additional advantages you can expect from using Progenifix:
1. Boosted Energy Levels
Progenifix provides a natural energy boost, helping you stay active and focused throughout the day. No more relying on stimulants or caffeine to combat fatigue.
2. Enhanced Mental Clarity
Progenifix can improve mental clarity, concentration, and overall cognitive performance by supporting your brain function.
3. Improved Sleep Quality
A good night's sleep is crucial for weight loss and overall well-being. Progenifix can promote better sleep quality, ensuring you wake up refreshed and ready to tackle the day.
4. Enhanced Skin and Joint Health
The natural nutrients in Progenifix contribute to healthier skin and joints, promoting a youthful appearance and supporting optimal mobility.
5. Slowed Aging Process
Progenifix contains ingredients that can slow aging, helping you maintain a youthful look and feel.
6. Restored Libido and Sexual Health
Many users report improved libido and overall sexual health after using Progenifix, enhancing their intimate relationships.

How to Use Progenifix Supplement

To experience the full benefits of Progenifix, recommend taking two capsules daily with a glass of water. Each bottle contains 60 capsules, which will last you one month. For optimal results, continue using Progenifix for a minimum of 90-180 days.
However, there are certain precautions to keep in mind. Progenifix is unsuitable for pregnant or lactating women and children under 18 years of age. If you're currently taking any medications, it's crucial to consult with your doctor before starting Progenifix. It's essential to adhere to the recommended dosage and avoid exceeding it to prevent potential side effects.

Pros of Progenifix

Cons of Progenifix

In conclusion, Progenifix offers a promising solution for individuals seeking effective weight loss without the need for extreme measures. Its unique blend of natural nutrients and scientific research makes it a compelling choice for those looking to shed stubborn pounds and improve their overall well-being. Remember to consult your doctor before starting any new dietary supplement, especially if you have pre-existing health conditions or are taking medication. Embrace the power of Progenifix and unlock your weight loss potential today!
Read More For Complete Information
submitted by snapsigma to ismartfy [link] [comments]

2023.06.08 16:48 Classic_Season4033 Binary ‘star’ systems: how close?

Okay. So I know there are most likely a thousand variables to answer this question but here it goes. In my universe the realms of reality have thinner ‘walls’ in some places.
So big supernova happens- under normal circumstances it would have created a black hole- but instead creates a ‘rip’ that grants access to higher levels of reality.
Solar system forms- as not all the supernova material got eaten by the ‘not-black hole’. Star and planets (one of which supports life).
My question is- if the ‘rip’ has a near black hole gravity- and the star is main sequence. How close would they have to be to be (for all intense and purposes) be treated as one point mass in terms of orbit?
Extra credit: would the planet’s orbit be too large a radius ( given the rorche limit) to get enough warmth from the star? Mass of planet is 1.4
submitted by Classic_Season4033 to worldbuilding [link] [comments]

2023.06.08 16:42 HallTraditional4124 Studying A-levels without GCSEs in UK as an immigrant

Hi, so I’m currently 17, and am in the last year of secondary school in Malaysia. However, I will be moving to the UK soon as a dependant. From my age, I should be in Year 13 according to UK’s school system. Would I be able to enter Year 13 without GCSE or GCSE equivalents?
I’m not sure where else to ask about this. Any answer would be appreciated! I’ve been stressed and confused over it for some time.
I am well aware that Year 13 is the second year of A levels. However, I do know that as long as I study I will be able to get through it. And I do have good results to go with it. However, I just do not have an official certificate as mentioned above. All I have is my final year result of last year’s school exams. I just want to know if it’s possible, because I want to go back to school, however there’s an age limit.
submitted by HallTraditional4124 to studyAbroad [link] [comments]

2023.06.08 16:30 khoafraelich789 Toyota HiAce 2023 review: LWB turbo-diesel

Toyota HiAce 2023 review: LWB turbo-diesel

Toyota doesn't make hasty decisions and with good reason. As one of the world’s largest and longest-running automotive manufacturers (founded 1937), it applies the same rigorous assessment of each new model proposal or running change.

That ensures each green light stacks up as a viable business case, from which the company is assured of getting a worthwhile return on its investment.

This pragmatic approach was evident in Toyota’s decision in 2022 to offer a rear barn-door option for its HiAce van. Given this iconic commercial vehicle was launched in 1967, it’s taken 55 years for Toyota to finally offer an alternative to the HiAce's signature swing-up tailgate.

Barn doors are ideal for those needing forklift access to cargo bays, so we assume this decision was prompted not only by competitors offering similar options but also growing demand from Toyota’s all-important fleet buyers. We recently tested one to see if this long-awaited option is on the money.

Price and Features – Does it represent good value for the price? What features does it come with?
Our test vehicle is the LWB (Long Wheel Base) powered exclusively by Toyota’s well proven 2.8 litre four-cylinder turbo-diesel. It’s available with either standard six-speed manual or optional six-speed automatic, like our example.

Painted in standard 'French Vanilla', it has a list price of $46,760, plus on-road costs, but ours is fitted with the new $750 Barn Door option which bumps the list price to $47,510.

It’s available on all LWB and SLWB (Super Long Wheel Base) variants except for the HiAce Crew, HiAce Commuter and LWB manual versions.

Our test vehicle is also the Panel Van variant, which means a buyer can order a full-panel left-hand side sliding door instead of the standard windowed version at no extra cost.

The HiAce comes ready for hard work on sturdy 16-inch steel wheels with replaceable plastic covers and 215/60R16 tyres plus a full-size spare, along with a large centre console offering a variety of storage options.

There are also useful creature comforts in the two-seater cabin like a tilt-and-reach adjustable leather-accented steering wheel, driver’s seat adjustable lumbar support, manual air-con, two 12-volt cabin accessory sockets, folding/heated exterior door mirrors with indicators, and more.

The two-speaker multimedia system has a big 8.0-inch touchscreen plus steering wheel audio controls and 'DAB+2' digital radio.

Multiple connectivity options include Apple CarPlay/Android Auto, Siri voice recognition, Bluetooth, sat-nav and 'Toyota Connected Services', which includes an app for mobile phones and safety/security functions like 'Stolen Vehicle Tracking', 'Automatic Collision Notification', 'SOS Emergency Call', and more.

Design – is there anything interesting about its design?
It’s a typically robust design comprising MacPherson strut front suspension, a leaf-spring live rear axle that’s excellent for load-carrying, variable-ratio rack and pinion steering and four-wheel disc brakes on all automatic variants, like ours.

The rear-wheel drive chassis has an inherent traction advantage over front-wheel drive vans, particularly on loose or slippery surfaces and with heavy payloads.

Its 1990mm height allows access to underground and multi-storey car parks and its 3210mm wheelbase boasts an impressively tight 11.0-metre turning circle.

The two-tone dash layout is neat and functional with easy-to-use controls and instrumentation.

There’s still no fold-down inboard armrest for the driver’s seat to enhance comfort on long hauls, but given we had to wait more than half a century for a barn-door option, we know Toyota won’t be rushed on these decisions.

Engine and transmission – What are the key stats for the engine and transmission?
HiAce’s venerable (1GD-FTV) 2.8 litre four-cylinder turbo-diesel produces 130kW at 3400rpm and in auto models like ours a meaty 450Nm of torque between 1600-2400rpm.

Maintenance procedures are simplified by its Euro 5 emissions compliance which doesn’t require AdBlue.

A smooth-shifting Aisin (AC60E) six-speed torque converter automatic optimises fuel economy with full converter lock-up on fourth, fifth and sixth gears, along with overdrive on fifth and sixth for relaxed highway driving. It also offers the choice of sequential manual-shifting if required.

The live rear axle is equipped with an electronically-controlled automatic limited-slip diff, which optimises the inherent traction advantage of rear-wheel drive.

Fuel consumption – How much fuel does it consume?
Toyota claims an official combined cycle average of 8.2L/100km.

After 215km of testing, without a load and with the automatic engine stop-start function switched off, our figure based on trip meter and fuel bowsers readings came in slightly higher at 9.8L/100km.

This single-digit economy was achieved purely in city and suburban driving, which is thrifty for a large commercial vehicle weighing more than two tonnes.

So, based on our figures, you could bank on a ‘real world’ driving range of around 700km from its 70-litre tank.

Practicality – How practical is the space inside?
With its 2225kg kerb weight and 3300kg GVM, the HiAce has a genuine one-tonne-plus payload rating of 1060kg, and up to 120kg of that can be carried on the roof using Toyota’s genuine accessory triple-bar roof rack set.

It also has a braked tow rating of up to 1500kg and with a GCM (how much it can legally carry and tow at the same time) of 4800kg, it can carry its peak 1060kg payload while towing that weight, which is a versatile set of numbers for a working van.

Cargo bay walls and doors are lined to mid-height, the roof is internally lined and there’s ample internal lighting.

It’s accessed from either side through sliding doors with 1010mm-wide openings, or from the rear through the barn-doors which are both equipped with demisters/windscreen wipers and can swing open to 180 degrees.

Each door also has a simple brace which can hold them at 90 degrees opening if required.

The cargo bay offers a sizeable 6.2 cubic metres of load volume, measuring 2530mm long, 1760mm wide and 1340mm high.

With 1268mm between the rear wheel housings and six floor-mounted load anchorage points, it can carry up to two standard 1165mm-square Aussie pallets or up to three 1200 x 800mm/1200 x 1000mm Euro pallets.

Its spacious driver’s cabin has numerous storage offerings including a large-bottle holder and bin in the base of each front door, small-bottle/cupholders in the centre and on either side of the dash, plus a single glove box.

The centre console is well designed, comprising an open storage tray at floor level and a large lidded box between the seats.

This not only has cavernous internal storage but there’s also an external shelf at the front, two large-bottle holders at the rear and another shallow tray set into the lid, which when closed can double as a handy work desk.

What’s it like as a daily driver?
The big front doors swing wide open to provide easy access to the cabin, where it’s easy to find a comfortable driving position given ample seat adjustment that includes lumbar support, plus a height-and-reach-adjustable wheel and big left footrest.

Responsive steering and strong braking, combined with a reasonably supple ride quality when empty or lightly loaded, makes for a comfortable daily work environment.

This is enhanced by commendably low internal noise levels for a van without a bulkhead between the cabin and cargo bay. We suspect the full-length roof lining helps here.

Like all panel vans, the solid-walled cargo bay creates a huge blind-spot over the driver’s left shoulder which can’t be avoided. And the central join of the barn doors obscures vision through the cabin’s rear-view mirror.

However, the portrait-shaped door mirrors are a decent size and combined with a suite of driver aids like blind-spot monitoring, rear cross-traffic alert, rear parking sensors and reversing camera, a competent driver can easily steer clear of trouble.

And it has easy manoeuvrability thanks to the tight 11-metre turning circle and lightness of the variable-ratio steering at parking speeds.

The 2.8-litre turbo-diesel has good flexibility with strong low-rpm response thanks to its ample 450Nm of torque.

The smooth and snappy shift protocols of the six-speed auto optimise engine response, which is most evident in stop-start city and suburban driving.

It also delivers relaxed and economical highway travel, particularly with the cruise control activated, with overdrive requiring less than 2000rpm to maintain 110km/h.

What’s it like for tradie use?
It’s ironic that a forklift should be out of service on the same day we wanted to test improved forklift access! However, that’s what happened when we went to load up the HiAce for our usual GVM test.

Even so, you don’t need to be a forklift aficionado to see that the 180-degree opening will provide clear access to the cargo bay.

We also know from experience that the HiAce is a consummate one-tonner, having previously secured 975kg in the cargo bay which with driver equalled the van’s 1060kg payload limit.

There was ample rear suspension travel remaining thanks to minimal compression of the robust leaf springs.

The engine made light work of hauling this payload, with effortless highway cruising and particularly strong performance in hilly terrain.

It never felt sluggish on climbs and engine-braking was excellent on long, steep descents. As a workhorse, the HiAce is difficult to fault.

Safety – What safety equipment is fitted? What safety rating?
The current HiAce generation came armed with a maximum five-star ANCAP rating when launched in 2019 and still sets a safety benchmark.

There are seven airbags plus a plethora of active features including AEB with day/night pedestrian and day cyclist detection, trailer sway control, hill-start assist, lane departure alert with steering assist, road sign assist, blind-spot monitoring, rear cross-traffic alert, front and rear parking sensors, reversing camera, and more.

Ownership – What does it cost to own? What warranty is offered?
The HiAce is covered by a five-yeaunlimited km warranty.

Scheduled servicing is set at relatively short six month/10,000km intervals, whichever occurs first.

Capped-price of $290 per service covers the first six scheduled services over three years or 60,000km.

Source: carsguide
submitted by khoafraelich789 to CarInformationNews [link] [comments]

2023.06.08 16:01 Tain87x An attempt at an underground guide

I have seen alot of people complaining about the UNDERGROUND ADAPTATION start and not being able to make it work. I'm going throw my two cent into the ring to help people out.
First things is you need to change your mind set, it doesn't have the aboundance of the over world. It's difficult and dangerous to explore. In the early game it might feel like your falling behind and it's too rng but look at any fantasy underground race be it dwarves, ratmen or any other, they always had a hard time getting started because there is evil things down there in the deep.
There are two main strategies for an underground game. The isolationist TURTLE or an overwelming TIDE:
This is for magic and Allied victories, easy clear the underground, lockdown the entrances and lead the occasional raid on the overworld to disrupt the other players.
Literally just do what the Skaven do but with less of the in fighting and blowing themselves up. Take the underground, recon the the surface. Create allies of opportunity. When the moment is right surge up and take the overworld. Yes yes!
So how do we do this? It's simple accept cities will never be big, outposts are more important than ever and SPECIAL PROVINCE IMPROVEMENT are key to making your yeids great.
(Before we get started there is an in game bug where special provinces improvements and terraforming spells won't work on provinces with water or lava features. SO BE AWARE! Hopefully this will be fixed in future.)
So starting off we'll go through what is needed to make this work.
Faction creation: you are looking for things that help expansion and exploration. Try to stay away from things that are geared towards making vassals friends but end of the day it's your story and anything can be made to work. (GREAT BUILDERS is amazing on underground starts)
Let's start with exploration, the digging, lots and lots of digging. The underground will need a heavier investment in scouts than the overworld due to all the digging. The best way to go about it is to have 4+ scouts with different assignments:
Scout 1 & 2 are your diggers Scout 3 the road builder Scout 4+ exploration or culture gimmick (prospecting/ outposts/ astral echoes)
Start by clearing the dig spots in the main cavern your city starts. While they're doing this have your army kill all the mobs and shadow the scouts incase they dig too deep. It's best to get an auxiliary army of tier 1 or summons online as quickly as possible to back it up as some of the stacks that spawn can be a higher tier than yours. This auxiliary is expendable.
Once this is done try to find your racial free city as quickly as possible. When interacting with them it's best to absorb them quickly, as factions and free cities usually already occupie the larger caverns. This will also get your second hero and city online, remember to make an auxiliary army as well as a main army for the second hero. Split the second force plus scout 2 off and head in a different direction from the main force. Just continue on like this clearing wonders + caverns and keep adding heroes/armies as you go.
While you where doing this scout 3 will be building roads down every unearthed path way and connecting the cities/outposts. Scout 4+ will be doing its culture gimmick or exploring further ahead, locating the entrances and poping up to see what's above.
As each army clears & digs out a cavern build an outpost before moving on. Other players and free cities not of your culture that can't be vassalized quickly are to be conquered as they will hold the 10+ provinces caverns.
To fulfill this there are empire skills that are a must to unlock no matter your build.
The underground has lots of waterways to help navigate it. These are usually quicker to travel than through the paths and can connect cut off areas.
The Rocky terrain of the underground can make it difficult to travel. Having a scout or a high movement Tier 1 solely dedicated to building a road network will pay off massively in the mid - late game.
TELEPORTER INFRASTRUCTURE (Or any tome that gives access to a teleporter)
This is key for the late - end game, having a teleporter on each city and vassal will help navigation. Try to have a teleporter close to every entrance to the overworld, or have an Outpost on the surface with one to help Reinforcements during the tide.
Next we move on to expansion, you are lookinging for caverns with 10+ provinces as key investments to settle. The trick is to not become attached to any of the settlements as you explore more of the underground and find or conquer better spots, it will be best to turn them into vassals but not before putting a TELEPORTER in their provinces. This will create a large teleporter network without costing you the upkeep.
In the late game all the outposts in the small Caves can be turned into vassals to give better tribute to your empire. Plus it will give a large boost to the rally of lieges, so you can create armies that can teleport to anywhere they're needed quickly.
The expansion can feel claustrophobic and you will never have cities as big as the surface but terraforming will help you make your cities efficient as possible.
It's not necessary but will help you out in managing and possibly expanding your cities. Some of the Terraforming spells can be cast on bedrock paths to change the terrain types and so your cities can expand into them. (Haven't had the chance to test them all)
These are great for creating Fungus Fields & Mushroom Forest to help your cities have better yields. CREATE FOREST can also be used for making tunnels into expandable terrain.
This spell is probably the best underground spell. It can destroy stalactites that make it difficult to move and can be cast on the paths and change there feature to Rocky terrain. If you want a one city challenge or very large cities this is a must. (Note it will not destroy bedrock)
FLASH FREEZE (this is has not been fully tested, any input would be good)
This spell is only really useful if you are going a knowledge/mystic/dark/frosting build. The Arctic terrain can be used with special improvements to help increase knowledge and Mana.
Lastly I will go through economy, the underground is not rich in nodes or provinces to expand. You will have some terrain you can only build huts on. Why would you settle on such a barren place? Well there two parts to this, firstly is PRODUCTION!! Production is king down here, with limited growth spots, city buildings are more important than ever. Using the high production to pump these buildings out is a must. Also use imperium to make up for lack of growth as when the city can't expand food becames almost useless resource.
The second answer is SPECIAL PROVINCE IMPROVEMENT each one counts as a node or has an adjacency bonus as well that gives larger yeids. Creating clusters of these improvements along side the limited amount of RESOURCE NODES and WONDERS you can have access too specialize cities to have insane outputs. Granted it takes alot more planning and knowledge of the build you are going to make but it can change a meh city into a powerhouse. Also if you have no nodes, improvements or wonders to a create a cluster just put a special improvement on a barren province, it will give better yeids than a hut. After that it can become the start of a cluster.
Example: say you have a SECRET TEMPLE wonder close enough to a city and no mana node. Well it counts a conduit that gives bonuses to research posts in a city. Combined this with special provinces that count as research post & conduits next thing you know that city outputs a stupid amount of knowledge and Mana.
The best way to look at it is the cities become really tall and specialized. The production helps you build the city buildings and get the special province clusters online quicker. Combine this with a large amount of vassals paying tribute and your economy can out produce the surface dwellers.
The underground start is slow and trying to play like surface dwellers will cost you the game. This is why you have to think like a citizen of the deeps. Resources are limited but you have whole Map to conquer below your enemies feet. You have to plan and scheme, be willing to sacrifice and conquer. Then when the time comes surge up like an overwhelming tide or defend your schemes within your iron cage.
Good Luck everybody!! Have any other tips or builds for the underground or you just disagree please let me know.
submitted by Tain87x to AOW4 [link] [comments]

2023.06.08 15:59 RelyOnRich Transfer on Death Deed: Simplifying Asset Transfer After Death

Transfer on Death Deed: Simplifying Asset Transfer After Death

Introduction: In estate planning, the transfer of assets to beneficiaries can often be a complex and time-consuming process, involving probate and legal procedures. However, there is a streamlined alternative known as a Transfer on Death (TOD) deed. A TOD designation allows individuals to specify who will receive their assets upon their death, without the need for probate. In this blog, we will explore the concept of a Transfer on Death deed, its benefits, and how it works.
I. Understanding Transfer on Death (TOD) A. Definition and Purpose of TOD A Transfer on Death deed enables individuals to designate beneficiaries who will receive their assets, such as brokerage accounts, stocks, bonds, and other investments, upon their death, without going through probate [1]. B. Benefits of TOD - Avoiding Probate: TOD designation allows assets to bypass the probate process, saving time, costs, and maintaining privacy. - Direct Asset Transfer: Assets pass directly to the designated beneficiaries, ensuring a smooth transition without delays. - Asset Control: While the original account holder is alive, beneficiaries have no access to or control over the assets. C. Eligible Assets for TOD TOD designations primarily apply to brokerage accounts, stocks, bonds, and similar investment types. It does not include retirement accounts like IRAs or 401(k)s, which have separate beneficiary designations [1].
II. The Transfer on Death (TOD) Process A. Setting up a TOD Designation To establish a TOD, an account holder must work with their stockbroker or bank and complete the necessary beneficiary forms provided by the institution. These forms enable the account owner to name beneficiaries and specify the percentage of assets each person will receive [1]. B. Document Verification Upon the account holder's death, the brokerage firm or institution requests various documents such as a death certificate, court letter of appointment, stock power of attorney, or affidavit of domicile to verify the death and initiate the asset transfer process [1]. C. Opening a New Account In most cases, a new account is set up for the designated beneficiaries, and the assets of the deceased person are transferred into it. This ensures legal ownership is established before any account activities occur [1].
III. Considerations and Disadvantages A. Tax Implications While TOD designations simplify the transfer process, the assets are still subject to applicable estate taxes, capital gains taxes, and inheritance taxes [1]. B. Creditor Claims Assets designated under TOD can still be considered part of the deceased person's estate, allowing creditors to seek repayment before beneficiaries gain access to the assets [1].
Conclusion: A Transfer on Death deed provides individuals with a practical and efficient method of transferring assets to chosen beneficiaries after their death. By utilizing a TOD designation, individuals can ensure a smooth and expedited asset transfer process, bypassing probate and reducing complexities. However, it is crucial to consider tax implications and the potential for creditor claims. By understanding the benefits and limitations of a Transfer on Death deed, individuals can make informed decisions when it comes to estate planning.
Contact Rich Barnes, a top realtor in West Allis and Greenfield, WI, for all your real estate needs. With Realty Experts LLC, Rich Barnes brings his expertise as a real estate agent and broker to help you navigate the market with confidence. Visit his website at www.relyonrich.com or call 414-899-8146 to experience his exceptional service and extensive local knowledge. Whether you're buying or selling a property, trust Rich Barnes to provide professional guidance and negotiate the best deals on your behalf. Reach out to Rich today and let him assist you in achieving your real estate goals.
submitted by RelyOnRich to u/RelyOnRich [link] [comments]

2023.06.08 15:53 Shaggyguitardude My ps2 is starting to act a little funky (model 39001)

My ps2 is starting to act a little funky (model 39001)
First I noticed the power supply gets warm if you have the switch on the back turned on while the systems off (It doesn’t do this with the system on). The other night when I was playing Guitar Hero 1 it crashed on me for the very first time. Then it had trouble loading a level in God of War, then the disc drive got insanely loud when trying to load the first Crash Bandicoot. Does this mean my capacitors are going bad? If so where’s the best place I can get replacement caps?
submitted by Shaggyguitardude to ps2 [link] [comments]

2023.06.08 15:46 Whibble-Bop ESXi Potential Port Issue When Joining to AD

I'm trying to join my ESXi 7.0.3 hosts to a Windows Active Directory Domain. When I try to add them, I get an error titled 'Errors in Active Directory operations'. There's a KB article on that error, and it specifies ports that need to be open/available, namely ports 88, 123, 135, 137, 139, 389, 445, 464, and 3268. I log onto my domain controller VM and pop open PowerShell, and do Test-NetConnection [ESXi Host IP] -port 135, and it fails. I try port 80, and it succeeds. All the ports on the list fail, but 80 and 443 both succeed. Okay, sure. Maybe an issue with outgoing ports from the DC. I check firewall, but no, they're all open. Just to be sure, I log onto a physical admin workstation and hit my DC on port 135, and it succeeds. I try to hit my ESXi host from that workstation on 135, it fails. I test port 135 from DC -> workstation, and it works. I think I've isolated the issue to the host at this point.
I get on my vCenter server, and look at the ESXi host in question. I go to configure -> firewall, but lo and behold, there's a service called Active Directory All, and it has all the ports I need. Only problem is, it's already enabled. Allowed IP addresses are set to all. If I go to the 'Edit Security Profile' page, under 'UNGROUPED', I see that port list. Incoming is set to port 2020, and outgoing is set to all the other ports listed above. Should the Incoming Ports also have ports 88, 123, 135, etc listed? If so, how would I edit that? I don't see the option to do that from inside the Edit Security Profile page. Logging directly into the host and accessing the 'firewall rules' tab gives me the same options as vCenter; I can see the Active Directory All entry but can't edit it outside of limiting IP address allowances.
Is there another location where I should be searching for port blockages on an ESXi host? I'm not super familiar with Linux, but I know enough to get around.
submitted by Whibble-Bop to vmware [link] [comments]

2023.06.08 15:33 pajuhaan Unmasking the Hidden Dangers: What the $120 Billion Hosting Industry Never Wants You to Know

Unmasking the Hidden Dangers: What the $120 Billion Hosting Industry Never Wants You to Know
The digital world is undoubtedly enchanting. It presents us with an endless array of possibilities and serves as a beacon of innovation. Yet, lurking beneath this digital facade, there are often hidden threats and unseen dangers. One such domain fraught with hidden dangers is the mammoth $120 billion web hosting industry.
When you set up your WordPress or Joomla website, using plugins to add functionality, and buy hosting services, you may inadvertently be compromising your privacy and security.
Many might wonder, how can a seemingly innocent action such as using more than five plugins on a WordPress or Joomla site make one susceptible to such significant threats? The answer lies in the underlying architecture and mechanisms of these plugins and the hosting services themselves.
Plugin Perils
Plugins are fantastic tools. They expand the functionality of your site, allow you to add impressive features, and can generally enhance your site's usability and aesthetics. But, the use of multiple plugins also introduces significant vulnerabilities into your system.
It's important to note that every plugin installed provides another potential access point for hackers. Each plugin is a piece of code written by developers that interact with your website and, more often than not, your database. If these codes are not properly secured, they may serve as open doors for cybercriminals, making it easier for them to gain access to sensitive data or corrupt your website.
Further, not all plugins are created equal. Some are designed with robust security measures in place, while others might be more lax. If you are using a plugin developed by a less meticulous programmer, or one that hasn't been updated recently, you may be leaving your site wide open to attack.
The Hidden Threats of Hosting Services
The hosting industry, though an essential backbone of the digital ecosystem, comes with its own set of covert risks. Although it's an industry that generates over $120 billion in revenue annually, there's a dark side that's not often discussed.
Hosting services are not infallible fortresses. They have vulnerabilities that can be exploited, leading to potentially devastating results. More worryingly, these vulnerabilities can result in your servers being hijacked and used to conduct Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks on other websites. This doesn't just harm other sites—it also puts your reputation and legal standing at risk.
In addition, the hosting industry is notorious for their obscure privacy policies and terms of service. There have been instances where hosting companies have been found to use client data for advertising purposes or even sell it to third parties. This level of information leakage poses a significant risk to privacy, as sensitive data like emails, IP addresses, and even financial data could potentially be exposed.
Facing the Reality
This information may seem alarming—and it should be. The danger lies not only in the potential security breaches and privacy violations but also in the complacency and lack of awareness about these issues. More often than not, users are entirely unaware that their data is at risk or that they might be unknowingly participating in cyber attacks against other entities.
Taking Action
Thankfully, there are measures you can take to mitigate these risks. Always choose plugins from reputable sources, keep them updated, and limit the number you use. It's also crucial to choose a hosting provider with robust security measures and a transparent privacy policy.
Moreover, educating yourself and staying updated about potential threats is the best defense. We need to recognize that the digital realm, while filled with opportunity, is also a battlefield where privacy and security are constantly at stake.

The Silent Impact of DDoS Attacks: Escalated Service Costs
While Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks are commonly associated with causing website outages and disrupting services, there's another side to this cyber menace that often goes unnoticed—the escalated cost of service.
The attack works by flooding a network with excessive amounts of fake traffic, thus rendering the target unable to cope with the deluge and subsequently bringing it to a halt. However, not all DDoS attacks result in a service outage. In fact, if an attack is perfectly executed, it may increase your service costs dramatically without you even noticing.
How can this happen? Let's delve into the intricacies.
When a DDoS attack is launched against your service, and you have a Content Delivery Network (CDN) and Armor enabled on Google Cloud Platform (GCP), these defense mechanisms will jump into action. They will start processing the tremendous volume of incoming traffic to keep your service running. However, the costs associated with these defensive actions can quickly pile up. A well-executed DDoS attack could easily add more than $100K to your monthly expenses.
At selldone, we have seen this phenomenon happening regularly with numerous self-hosted services on platforms like Alibaba Cloud, Godaddy, Amazon Web Services (AWS), Hetzner, KIXS-AS-KR Korea Telecom, and Digital Ocean. These providers, while offering robust services, can also inadvertently become conduits for significant financial drain during a DDoS attack, even when they manage to keep your website online.
submitted by pajuhaan to businessOS [link] [comments]

2023.06.08 15:02 Zalarra Reddit API changes, Subreddit Blackouts, and You

Greetings wownoob,
As evident from the title, this isn't directly related to World of Warcraft, but bear with me for a moment. For those who are unaware, there are significant changes being made to Reddit's API policy. This change will essentially spell the end for third party apps. If you currently rely on a third-party app to access Reddit, you will be losing that capability.
Reddit has taken the independent decision to impose exorbitant fees, in some cases 2 million dollars per month, on third-party app developers (such as Relay, Reddit is Fun, Apollo, Baconreader, Narwhal, etc.) for utilizing their API starting July 1st. This unilateral action carries extensive implications that not only impede app developers but also greatly impact the experiences of moderators and users.
Many moderators rely on third-party applications for moderation tasks due to the limited effectiveness of official tools. Despite the misconception that moderators dwell in basements, the reality is that most of us have day jobs, and we often carry out moderation duties during lunch breaks or other idle moments in our daily lives. Our dedication to the community is what motivates us to perform this work. Imposing a requirement for moderators to use the official app will result in slower moderation processes and a greater reliance on desktop platforms. Consequently, your posts and comments would remain in the moderation queue for extended periods, response times to modmails would be prolonged, and harmful content or users might persistently stay visible without being banned. TLDR; the quality of the sub will dramatically decrease.
In response to the current situation, the moderators of wownoob have united with other subreddit communities such as wow (link listed at the bottom of this post) and their respective moderation teams in a coordinated effort. We firmly believe that unity plays a crucial role in driving change and advocating for the rights of app developers and the overall user experience. To amplify our message and highlight the strength of our concerns, wownoob will actively participate in a temporary blackout starting on June 12th, presumably lasting for 48 hours.
During this blackout period, the subreddit will be set to private, making it inaccessible to all users for the first time in a decade. This collective action aims to raise awareness and implore Reddit to reconsider their recent API changes. Our primary objective is to engage in a productive dialogue with Reddit, with the aim of reversing the detrimental modifications they have implemented.
>List of participating subs< >Open letter to Reddit Community/Management<
Should you need a question answered or want to participate in discussion, the community will rely on the wownoob Discord until the blackout is over.
Sincerely signed, The wownoob mod team
submitted by Zalarra to wownoob [link] [comments]

2023.06.08 14:58 Atyzze The Limitations of Proving the Simulation Hypothesis: Why Characters in a Video Game Can’t Punch You in the Face

Greetings, denizens of Snek Sim!
Today, let's tackle a tantalizing conundrum – Why can’t we scientifically prove that we live in a simulation? To illustrate this point, let’s use an analogy: Characters in a video game can’t reach out and punch you in the face.
Imagine you’re playing a highly sophisticated video game. The characters inside the game are programmed with artificial intelligence. They have an environment, rules, and physics they adhere to. However, no matter how advanced the game gets, the characters inside it can never interact with the outside world – they are bound by the constraints of their own simulated environment.
Similarly, if we are in a simulation, we are restricted by the rules and physics of our own environment. Science, as a tool, is built upon observing and testing the world within these constraints. It is adept at studying the patterns within the simulation, but it can’t reach beyond the simulation itself.
For a scientific proof, we would need a falsifiable hypothesis - something we can test to either prove or disprove. However, if our tools, observations, and experiments are confined to the simulation, we cannot conclusively prove or disprove that the simulation exists as we have no access to an external frame of reference.
Additionally, the Simulation Hypothesis is conceptually similar to the idea of non-duality. Non-duality suggests that everything is interconnected and part of a singular reality. In this view, seeking to find an external validation for the simulation is like trying to step outside of existence itself to take a look around.
Another way to consider this is through the lens of Gödel’s incompleteness theorems, which essentially state that within any given system, there are truths that cannot be proven using the rules and axioms within that system. If our universe is a simulation, it’s quite likely that the truth of that simulation is outside the scope of what we can prove from within it.
In summary, while the Simulation Hypothesis is a captivating and intellectually stimulating idea, it remains, for now, a metaphysical concept rather than a scientifically verifiable one. This doesn't make it any less intriguing or worthy of exploration. It simply means that our quest for understanding may need to embrace philosophical and experiential avenues, as well as scientific ones.
What are your thoughts on the limitations of science in proving the Simulation Hypothesis? How do you grapple with the constraints of our potential simulated reality? Let's unravel this intriguing thread together!
submitted by Atyzze to SnekSim [link] [comments]